ALGAE AND SPIRULINA PROJECTS
CULTIVATION OF BLUEGREEN ALGAE
Spirulina provides high concentrations of many nutrients - amino acids, chelated minerals, pigmentations, natural plant sugars, trace elements, enzymes - that are in an easily assimilable form. Even though it is single-celled, Spirulina is relatively large, attaining sizes of 0.5 millimeters in length. This is about 100 times the size of most other algae, which makes some individual Spirulina cells visible to the naked eye.
Spirulina being a large sized algae is easy to be harvested as it grows into larger biomass.
Spirulina is one of the blue-green algae's as it contains both chlorophyll (green) and phycocyanin (blue) pigments in its cell structure. It grows in highly alkaline Ph of 8.5 to 11 and this makes other microorganisms extinct in the spirulina ponds.
It can survive in harsh environments and can multiplies well at 35 to 45 degrees C.
The spirulina farm has a 300 sq m pond area for cultivation of anthrospira platensis. This accounts for annual production in excess of one thousand kilo's of natural high grade quality spirulina which is supplied as raw materials and finished products worldwide.
It is the one and only Vegan food that contains high protein and other minerals in abundance.
Eight essential amino acids are found in Spirulina:
ISOLEUCINE: Required for optimal growth, intelligence development and nitrogen equilibrium in the body Used to synthesize other non-essential amino acids.
LEUCINE: Stimulator of brain function, increases muscular energy levels.
LYSINE: Building block of blood antibodies, strengthens circulatory system and maintains normal growth of cells.
METHIONINE: Vital lipotropic (fat and lipid metabolizing) amino acid that maintains liver health. An anti-stress factor, it calms the nerves.
PHENYLALANINE : Required by the thyroid gland for production of thyroxine which stimulates metabolic rate.
THREONINE: Improves intestinal competence and digestive assimilation.
TRYPTOPHANE: Increases utilization of B vitamins,improves nerve health and stability of the emotions. Promotes sense of calm.
VALINE: Stimulates mental capacity and muscle coordination.
Non-essential amino acids supplied by Spirulina:
Spirulina supplies ten of the twelve non-essential amino acids. "Non-essential" does not mean that these amino acids are not needed by the body, but merely indicates that the body can synthesize them itself if it needs to do so, provided the appropriate nutritional building blocks are available. Nevertheless, the body is better served if these excellent protein components are readily and totally available in dietary sources, since all the amino acids must be on hand as the cells manufacture enzymes, proteins, hormones, brain chemicals and the other products of metabolism. Of the thousands of biochemical substances acting and interacting in the human body, not one is derived from a vacuum; the body is ultimately dependent upon nutrient intake for all of its functions.
ALANINE: Strengthens cellular walls.
ARGININE: Important to male sexual health as seminal fluid is 80 percent arginine. Also helps detoxify the blood.
ASPARTIC ACID: Aids transformation of carbohydrates into cellular energy.
CYSTINE: Aids pancreatic health, which stabilizes blood sugar and carbohydrate metabolism. Has been used to alleviate some symptoms of food allergy and intolerance.
GLUTAMIC ACID: With glucose, one of the principal fuels for the brain cells. Has been used to reduce the craving for alcohol and stabilize mental health.
GLYCINE: Promotes energy and oxygen use in the cells.
HISTIDINE: Strengthens nerve relays, especially in the auditory organs. Has been used to reverse some cases of deafness.
PROLINE: A precursor of glutamic acid.
SERINE: Helps form the protective fatty sheaths surrounding nerve fibers.
TYROSINE: Slows aging of cells and suppresses hunger centers in the hypothalamus. Can be synthesized from phenylalanine. Involved in proper coloration of hair and skin, including protection from sunburn.
Spirulina for Dogs and Cats and animal husbandry
• Boost Immune System of the animals
• Promotes healthier skin,lustrous look and fresher breath, digestion and bowel function.
• Regain flexibility for older dogs and provides a better agility.
• It is rich in natural carotene antioxidants that promote cellular health and reduce the risk of cancer. It has cleansing chlorophyll which helps detoxify the bodies of ever present pollution.
• It contains as much as 70% protein, and is a good source of chlorophyll, B-complex vitamins, vitamin E, and iron. Spirulina also contains more beta-carotene than carrots as well as the essential fatty acid known as GLA.
Spirulina as fish feed
Spirulina is one of the most concentrated natural sources of nutrition known for both terrestrial and aquatic animals.
Spirulina is 60-70% protein by weight and is the richest source of Vitamin B-12 and Beta carotene and is also loaded with essential fatty acids and minerals.
Of recent , there has been new interest concerning the therapeutic effects of Spirulina as a "probiotic" or booster for the immune response system in animals and fish. It has been found that the immunity against diseases has provided the mortality to come down in Hatcheries.
BENEFITS TO USING SPIRULINA ALGAE
Increased and more uniform growth rates when fed at the recommended 0 .5-2.0% inclusion rate.
Spirulina improves the intestinal flora in fish by the breakdown of otherwise indigestible feed components, thereby extracting more nutrition from the feed.
The same beneficial flora or bacteria produce vitamins and displace harmful substances which is why fish fed with Spirulina have less intestinal compaction, a slimmer abdomen, and are more resistant to infection.
Spirulina stimulates the production of enzymes that transport fats within the fish's body. The fish utilizes the fat to power growth instead of just storing it and becoming flabby.
The 5 ppt carotenoid pigments that are concentrated in Spirulina algae improve and intensify the coloration in fish. This is especially important for koi and goldfish to command a higher price in the marketplace. Chlorophyll and phycocyanin also enhance the skin colors.
Increased Survival Rates
Studies on marine yellowtail showed that fingerlings fed a ration of 0.5% (5 ppt) spirulina resulted in a significant gain in survival over the non-Spirulina fed group. Similar results were obtained from professional Discus fish breeders who incorporated Spirulina powder into the diet for newborn Discus fry.
Fish farmers have found that including Spirulina in the diet reduced the amount of medication or therapeutics that are normally required to treat sick fish. Spirulina also reduced toxicity of medications and may itself have anti-viral properties.
Most disease treatments on the market are "water baths" in which the fish must absorb the drug from the aquarium water.
Orally feeding your fish a diet containing Spirulina could effectively reduce or eliminate the need for bath treatments.
Using Spirulina algae as a "prophylactic" treatment in place of antibiotics can effectively reduce waste water pollutants.
SPIRULINA For SPA applications:
We provide here some ways to use the spirulina in cosmetics- spa applications. The sample detail provided helps the end-user to help formulate some interesting product ideas.
A Soap can be made using Spirulina.
Discover the beauty secrets of Spirulina Soap . It can contain many herbs like Menthol-Neem,ocimum sanctum with the Spirulina , and it has excellent moisturizing properties and also very rich in Vitamin E, which is essential to promote healthy skin, the Menthol extract accentuates fragrance and refreshing feeling , it cleanses and at the same time retains skin’s suppleness and smoothness and prevents drying and scaling, it is recommended for all skin types. Neem is anti bacterial and Ocimum provides anti fungal and detox benefits.
Spirulina toothpaste consists of Spirulina, Ganoderma and Mint. It has anti-bacteria, anti-viral, anti-fungal effect and an adjunct to the oral immune system. With regular use, one can protect against tooth decay, relieve bleeding gums, add tone to the gingiva, aid in plaque removal, whiten teeth and freshen breath for a longer period of time.
Spirulina -Concentrated Dishwashing Liquid
Spirulina with -Lime can be made as a concentrated dishwashing liquid that contains a formula and which cleanses 4 times more than any other ordinary dishwashing liquids. Its natural components are Eco-Friendly and easy to rinse off with sparkling clean effects on your glassware and kitchen utensils.
The product can be made Eco-Friendly products by adding -Aloe vera and seaweed Extract and lime which makes it gentle on hands while cleaning and washing.
Spirulina -Whitening and Nourishing Mask
Spirulina Whitening and Nourishing Mask is a Face Mask that deeply nourish and at the same time whiten the skin.
It contains Spirulina which has proven Anti-Aging functionality. Other natural sources of essence and extracts of precious herbs and bio-ingredients such as Ginseng, Mulberry, Aloe Vera, Propoli, Licorice, Cucumber are natural moisturizing factors which deeply nourish and calm the skin, and add radiance to the skin.
Regular use of the Face Mask or use on Beauty Regime basis will thoroughly and effectively deep cleanses the accumulated impurities and toxins of the skin, hydrates and supplies moisture and nutrients, accelerates skin metabolism and revitilises skin cells regeneration.
Spirulina -Moisturising Hand and Body Lotion
Composition of a cream based product or lotion using Spirulina as an active ingredient, can help provide functionality of hydration and moisturization.
With regular use this lotion will increase the elasticity of the skin while promoting a smoother and even fairer and exceptional toned skin.
Spirulina: What it Contains?
Vitamin A, B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), B6 (pyridoxine), B12 (cobalamin), vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, folate, vitamin K, biotin, pantothenic acid, beta carotene (source of vitamin A), inositol. calcium, manganese, iron, chromium, phosphorus, molybdenum, iodine, chloride, magnesium, sodium, zinc, potassium, selenium, germanium, copper, boron. phycocyanin, chlorophyll, carotenoids. myxoxanthophyll, zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, echinenone and other xanthophylls.gamma linolenic acid, glycolipids, sulfolipids, polysaccharides. isoleucine, phenylalanine, leucine, threonine, lysine, tryptophan, methionine, valine, alanine, glycine, arginine, histidine, aspartic acid, proline, cystine, serine, glutamic acid, tyrosine.
PYRIDOXINE or B6 : Involved in breakdown and assimilation of protein. Protects cardiac health, reduces edema and stabilizes female hormone levels. Dr. Carl Pfeiffer has demonstrated that B6, together with the mineral zinc, can cure some forms of schizophrenia.
BIOTIN : An enzyme that carries CO, during certain biochemical reactions involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Also acts as a co-enzyme in the assimilation of other B-complex vitamins. Biotin is destroyed by eating raw egg whites and some kinds of raw fish.
COBALAMIN or B12 : The most difficult of all vitamins to obtain from vegetable sources. Spirulina is extremely rich in this rare vitamin, containing 250 percent more than beef liver, previously thought to be nature's richest source. A single serving of Spirulina easily exceeds the Recommended Daily Allowance of 1.5 to 3 mcg daily. A B12 deficiency results in pernicious anemia, nerve degeneration, premature senility, pronounced fatigue and mental illnesses resembling schizophrenia.
PANTOTHENIC ACID : The "stress" vitamin, used by the adrenal glands, along with cholesterol and vitamin C, to manufacture cortisone and other steroids in response to physical and mental stress. Deficiency encourages sensitivity to allergy, infection and degenerative diseases such as arthritis and rheumatism. Ulcers and hypoglycemia have also been associated with shortage of this vitamin.
FOLIC ACID : Essential to proper hemoglobin formation in red blood cells. Deficiency results in anemia, poor growth, skin pigmentation disorders and premature graying of the hair.
INOSITOL: Vital lipotropic nutrient that sustains liver health and helps detoxify carcinogens, particularly excess female hormones. Helps normalize blood cholesterol levels. With choline, inositol is used by the liver to manufacture lecithin. Inositol is the second most abundant vitamin in the body, after niacin. Recent studies indicate that inositol, with biotin, reduces loss of scalp hair.
NIACIN : Also known as nicotinic acid and niacinamide, which is an alternative form, niacin is essential to mental health. Dr. Abram Hoffer, a renowned pioneer in orthomolecular psychiatry, has completely relieved schizophrenic symptoms using niacin. The Physicians' Desk Reference, a pharmaceutical text used by doctors when prescribing medication, recognizes niacin as an effective cholesterol lowering agent.
RIBOFLAVIN or B2 : The most common vitamin deficiency is that of riboflavin and results in cataracts, failing vision, watery eyes and uncontrollable eczema.
THIAMINE or B 1 : A co-enzyme in the breakdown of dietary carbohydrate. Maintains levels of glucose in the blood. Deficiency results in weakness, cardiac damage, abdominal distention and poor oxygenation. Severe shortage results in death; critical toxemia develops from unmetabolized carbohydrate fragments.
TOCOPHEROL or vitamin E : Spirulina contains more vitamin E per gram than pure wheat germ. This nutrient protects heart and vascular health, promotes oxygenation of cells, and retards aging.
Some substances in plant foods are not true vitamins, but provide the precursors from which the body can then synthesize the appropriate vitamins. The carotenoid compounds of Spirulina are of this nature, since they are used to produce vitamin A.
True vitamin A is found in the pre-formed state only in animal sources, such as liver. This is the form of vitamin A sometimes associated with toxicity and overdose, since it is fat-soluble and is not readily excreted from the body.
In contrast, the carotenoid complexes found in vegetable foods are converted to vitamin A only as it is needed, thus minimizing the dangers of toxicity. Spirulina and other algae are a primary source of vitamin A precursors - it is from algae carotenoids that fish livers derive and concentrate vitamin A.
Spirulina contains the yellow/orange pigments cryptoxanthine and beta-carotene from which vitamin A can be made.
Spirulina contains carotenoids in these forms:
Blue-green algae and Spirulina in particular, have a primitive structure with few starch storage cells and cell membrane proliferation, but rich amounts of ribosomes, the cellular bodies that manufacture protein. This particular arrangement of cellular components allows for rapid photosynthesis and formation of proteins. The lack of hard cellular walls assures that Spirulina protein is rapidly and easily assimilated by consuming organisms.
Spirulina is approximately 65 to 71 percent protein, depending on growing conditions. These proteins are biologically complete, which means they provide all eight essential amino acids in the proper ratios. Furthermore, Spirulina provides all the required amino acids in a form that is easier to digest than meat or soy protein.
Although proteins are the building blocks of life, many trace minerals can profoundly effect health and metabolism.
The waters Spirulina favors are saturated with minerals deposited from ancient soils and mountains where no other plants can live . Because Spirulina thrives in such alkaline waters, it incorporates and synthesizes many minerals and derivative compounds into its cell structure.
Transformed into natural organic forms by Spirulina, minerals become chelated with amino acids and are therefore more easily assimilated by the body. Many times people have ingested large amounts of inorganic minerals without benefit to health because the body does not know what to do with these incompatible forms. In fact, evidence is accumulating that the inorganic minerals can block absorption of the organic forms, leading ultimately to mineral deficiency diseases.
Spirulina contains essential minerals and trace elements absorbed from its growth medium into chelated, easily absorbed forms:
POTASSIUM : A crucial mineral that regulates body electrolyte balance. Deficiency can cause heart arrest, hypertension, adrenal exhaustion and muscular collapse.
CALCIUM : The most abundant mineral in the body, it is especially important to bone and dental health, but is also involved in neural transmissions to the muscles. Spirulina supplies about as much calcium, gram for gram, as milk.
ZINC : The pivot point of over thirty vital enzymatic reactions, with profound effects on mental health, skin tone, prostate function and healing capacity.
MAGNESIUM : Deficiency can lead to spasmodic muscle disorders, including cardiac irregularities. Helps assimilation of vitamin C, B vitamins and protein.
MANGANESE : Activates enzyme systems, along with zinc. Promotes activity of neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and helps stabilize blood sugar.
SELENIUM : Originally believed to be a toxic heavy metal, but now known to be necessary for health. It retards aging, harmful oxidation and free radical formation, reduces the toxic effect of carcinogens, and improves cardiac efficiency.
IRON : Promotes formation of hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying blood pigment found in healthy red blood cells. Iron deficiency is most common among women in their reproductive years.
PHOSPHORUS : The second most abundant mineral in the human body, it is found in practically every cell. Functions with calcium to maintain bone density. Helps to digest carbohydrates and the B vitamins niacin and riboflavin.
While the protein, mineral and vitamin value of Spirulina is impressive, this minute organism is also rich in pigments that are bio-chemically important to life. Without pigments, organisms could not synthesize many of the enzymes necessary for balancing metabolism.
The most visible pigment in Spirulina is chlorophyll, a green molecule common to plants. It releases ions when struck by the energy of sunlight. These free ions proceed to stimulate the biochemical reactions that form proteins, vitamins and sugars.
Chlorophyll is sometimes called `green blood" because of its similarity to the hemoglobin molecule found in human blood cells. In fact, both are constructed of almost identical molecular structure called pyrrole rings, and both substances are chemically known as "porphyrin pigments" by scientists.
The difference is that chlorophyll contains a magnesium ion at its core, while hemoglobin contains an iron molecule. Magnesium imparts a green color to the chlorophyll molecule and is involved in synthesis of other materials, while iron gives hemoglobin a red coloration and changes the function of the porphyrin molecule to respiration and breakdown of materials.
It is believed that if chlorophyll is ingested with sufficient iron, the magnesium can be displaced to yield a hemoglobin molecule. Experiments in Japan have demonstrated that Spirulina has a marked positive effect on anemia, possibly due to the conversion of chlorophyll into hemoglobin. Of course, the high nutrient density of Spirulina, especially the blood-building vitamins B12 and folic acid and the amino acids, are also useful in treating cases of anemia.
Chlorophyll has other positive benefits to the body. It increases peristaltic action and thus relieves constipation, and also normalizes the secretion of digestive acids. It soothes the inflammation and reduces the excess pepsin secretion associated with gastric ulcers.
During World War Two, the drying action of chlorophyll and its antiseptic qualities made it a common first-aid measure to prevent festering of wounds. In addition, chlorophyll soothes swelling and promotes granulation, the process that regenerates new tissue over injuries.
Chlorophyll appears to promote regeneration of damaged liver cells, and also increases circulation to all the organs by dilating blood vessels. In the heart, chlorophyll aids in transmission of nerve impulses that control contraction. The heart rate is slowed, yet each contraction is increased in power, thus improving the overall efficiency of cardiac work.
The pigment which gives Spirulina its blue cast is phycocyanin, found in concentrations of about 7 percent, compared to the I percent chlorophyll content most commonly found. Phycocyanin is related to the human pigment bilirubin, which is important to healthy liver function and digestion of amino acids.
Another important pigment is porphyrin, a red compound that forms the active nucleus of hemoglobin. Related to this structure is the polypyrrole molecule of B12, which is essential to the formation of healthy red blood cells.
These and several lesser pigments such as phycoerythrin, tetrapyrrole, phytonadione and the carotenoids are not just the "color" of living organisms, but are used to carry on metabolic processes throughout the body. Without them, enzymatic reactions would be reduced until cellular disintegration occurred.
Fats, sugars, salts and calories:
It is probably hard to imagine that a concentrated source of nutrients such as Spirulina is not also loaded with fats, starches and calories. Amazingly, Spirulina is only 7 percent lipid, and most of that is in the form of essential fatty acids that promote cholesterol normalization. The essential fatty acids sometimes called vitamin F, include linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic acid. They are used by the body to manufacture Prostaglandins, the hormonal regulators of blood pressure and capillary resilience.
The essential fatty acids are involved in respiration in all the cells, and are especially important to oxygen transport. They affect the health of the hair, skin and nails, and help break up cholesterol in the blood stream. They are not dangerous fat but are absolutely vital to health.
Spirulina contains very little starch or sugar. What carbohydrate it supplies, roughly 10 to 15 percent, is primarily in the form of rhamnose and glycogen. These two polysaccharides are easily absorbed by human cells with minimal intervention by insulin. Hence, Spirulina sugars provide speedy energy, without taxing the pancreas or precipitating hypoglycemia.
From a caloric standpoint, Spirulina nutrition is economical. There are only approximately 3.9 calories per gram of protein obtained from Spirulina. You would have to consume about 18.5 calories of raw 75% lean ground beef to obtain a gram of protein. The average 500 mg tablet of Spirulina contains only one to two calories!
Some people are concerned about sodium in their diets, and have therefore avoided seaweed foods such as nori, wakami and kombu. These kelp foods are very nutritious, but they do contain significant sodium amounts. Spirulina avoids the sodium problems of algae that grow in the sea, yielding only .206 mg of sodium per tablet. Most hypertension patients are restricted to 2,000 mg or less of sodium per day; Spirulina has such small amounts of sodium that no danger is presented to persons on a salt-restricted diet.